Identifying temporal sensory drivers of liking of biscuit supplemented with brewer’s spent grain for young consumers
Brewer’s spent grain (BSG), a by-product of the brewing industry, has great potential as food additive. BSG is particularly rich in protein and fibre content which makes it an ideal nutritional fortifier for biscuits. However, adding BSG to biscuits can lead to changes in sensory perception and consumer acceptance. This study explored the temporal sensory profiles and drivers/inhibitors of liking in BSG-fortified biscuits. Six biscuit formulations were obtained from a design with factors oat flake particle size (three levels: 0.5 mm, small commercial flakes, large commercial flakes) and baking powder (two levels: with, without). Consumers (n = 104) tasted the samples, described their dynamic sensory perception using the Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) method, and rated their liking on a 7-point categorical scale. The Clustering around Latent Variables (CLV) approach was used to group consumers into two clusters based on their preferences. The temporal sensory profiles and drivers/inhibitors of liking were investigated within each cluster. Foamy and Easy–to–swallow were sensory drivers of liking for both groups of consumers. However, inhibitors of liking were different in the two clusters: Dense and Hard–to–swallow for one cluster and Chewy, Hard–to–swallow and Hard for the other cluster. These findings give evidence that manipulating oat particle size and presence/absence of baking powder changes BSG-fortified biscuits’ sensory profiles and consumer preferences. A complementary analysis of the area-under-curve of the TCATA data and inspection of individual temporal curves showed the dynamics of perception and showed how oat particle size and presence/absence of baking powder affected consumer perception and acceptance of BSG-fortified biscuits. The methods proposed in this paper can be further applied to understand how enriching products with ingredients that would otherwise go to waste affects acceptance in different consumer segments.
Nguyen, Q.C., Castura, J.C., Le Nguyen, D.D., Varela, P. (2023). Identifying temporal sensory drivers of liking of biscuit supplemented with brewer’s spent grain for young consumers. Food Research International, 170, 113049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113049